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The Welsh Triads
TRIADS, THE WELSH

The following 96 TRIADS are quoted from THE WELSH TRIADS second edition, edited and translated by Rachel Bromwich, where the reader will find her appropiate notes inserted.

The abbreviations used here is:

C: Cardiff.

PEN: National Library of Wales, Peniarth MS.

R: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR COCH HERGEST is dated CIRCA 1400.

W: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR GWYN RHYDDERCH is dated CIRCA 1325.

WR: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR GWYN and the LLYFR COCH.

TRIAD 1

Three Tribal Thrones of the island of Britain:
Arthur as Chief Prince in Mynyw (= St David's), and Dewi as Chief Bishop, and Maelgwn Gwynedd as Chief Elder;
Arthur as Chief Prince in Celliwig in Cornwall, and Bishop Bytwini as Chief Bishop, and Caradawg Strong-Arm as Chief Elder;
Arthur as Chief Prince in Pen Rhionydd in the North, and Gerthmwl Wledig as Chief Elder, and Cyndeyrn Garthwys as Chief Bishop.

TRIAD 2

Three Generous men of the Island of Britain:
Nudd the Generous, son of Senyllt,
Mordaf the Generous, son of Serwan,
Rhydderch the Generous, son of Tudwal Tudglyd.
(And Arthur himself was more generous than the three.)

TRIAD 3

Three Fair Princes of the Island of Britain:
>Owain son of Urien,
>Rhun son of Maelgwn,
Rhufawn the Radiant son of Dewrarth Wledig.

TRIAD 4

Three Well-Endowed Men of the Island of Britain:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Llachau son of Arthur,
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.

TRIAD 5

Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain:
Dunawd son of Pabo Pillar of Britain,
and Gwallawg son of Lleenawg,
and Cynfelyn the Leprous (?).

TRIAD 6

Three Bull-Protectors (?) of the Island of Britain:
Cynfawr Host-Protector, son of Cynwyd Cynwydion,
and Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw,
and Urien son of Cynfarch.

TRIAD 7

Three Bull-Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Elinwy son of Cadegr,
and Cynhafal son of Argad,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.

The three of them were sons of bards.

TRIAD 8

Three Prostrate Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Llywarch the Old son of Elidir Llydanwyn,
and Manawydan son of Llyr Half-Speech,
and Gwgon Gwron son of Peredur son of Eliffer of the Great Retinue.
(And this is why those were called 'Prostrate Chieftains': because they would not seek a dominion, which nobody could deny to them.)

TRIAD 9

Three Chieftains of Arthur's Court:
Gobrwy son of Echel Mighty-Thigh,
Cadr(i)eith ('Fine-Speech') son of Porthawr Gadw,
and Fleudur Fflam ('Flame').

TRIAD 10

Three Chieftains of Deira and Bernicia:
Gall son of Disgyfdawd,
and Ysgafnell son of Disgyfdawd,
and Diffydell son of Disgyfdawd.
The three of them were sons of bards.

TRIAD 11

Three Red-Speared Bards of the Island of Britain:
Tristfardd, bard of Urien,
and Dygynnelw, bard of Owain son of Urien,
and Afan Ferddig, bard of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan.

TRIAD 12

Three Frivolous Bards of the Island of Britain:
Arthur,
and Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
and Rahawd son of Morgant.

TRIAD 13

Three Chief Officers of the Island of Britain:
Caradawg son of Brân,
and Cawrdaf son of Caradawg,
and Owain son of Maxen Wledig.

TRIAD 14

Three Seafarers of the Island of Britain:
Geraint son of Erbin,
and Gwenwynwyn son of Naf,
and March son of Meirchiawn.

TRIAD 15

Three Roving Fleets of the Island of Britain:
The Fleet of Llawr son of Eiryf,
and the Fleet of Divwng son of Alan,
and the Fleet of Solor son of Murthach.

TRIAD 16

Three Powerful Shepherds of the Island of Britain:
Riueri son of Tangwn.
and D(u)nawd the Shepherd,
and Pryder (= Care) son of Dolor (= Grief) of Deira and Bernicia.

TRIAD 17

Three Fettered Men of the Island of Britain:
Cadwaladr the Blessed,
and Rhun son of Maelgwn,>
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
(And this is why those men were called Fettered: because horses could not be obtained that were suited to them, owing to their size; so they put fetters of gold around the small of their legs, on the cruppers of their horses, behind their backs; and two golden plates under their knees, and because of this the knee is called 'knee-pan'.)

TRIAD 18

Three Battle-Horsemen of the Island of Britain:
Caradawg Strong-Arm,
and Me(n)waedd of Arllechwedd,
and Llyr of the Hosts.

TRIAD 18 WR.

Three Favourites of Arthur's Court, and Three Battle-Horsemen: they would never endure a PENTEULU over them. And Arthur sang an ENGLYN:
These are my Three Battle-Horsemen:
and Lludd of the Breastplate,
and the Pillar of the Cymry, Caradawg.

TRIAD 19

Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain:
Greidiawl Enemy-Subduer son of E(n)vael Adrann,
and Gweir of Great Valour,
and Drystan son of Tallwch.

TRIAD 20

Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
Arthur,
and Rhun son of Beli,
and Morgant the Wealthy.

TRIAD 20 WR.

Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
Rhun son of Beli,
and Lle(u) Skilful Hand,
and Morgan(t) the Wealthy.
But there was one who was a Red Ravager greater than all three: Arthur was his name. For a year neither grass nor plants used to spring up where one of the three would walk; but where Arthur went, not for seven years.

TRIAD 21

Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain:
Drystan son of Tallwch,
and Hueil son of Caw,
and Cai son of Cenyr of the Fine Beard.
And one was diademed above the three of them: that was Bedwyr son of Bedrawc.

TRIAD 22

Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain, three sons of Haearnwedd the Wily:
Gruddnei,
and Henben,
>and Edenawg.

TRIAD 22 WR.

Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain:
Gruddnei,
and Henben,
and Edenawg.
They would not return from battle except on their biers. And those were three sons of Gleissiar of the North, by Haearnwedd the Wily their mother.

TRIAD 23

Three Arrogant Men of the Island of Britain:
Sawyl High-Head,
and Pasgen son of Urien,
and Rhun son of Einiawn.

TRIAD 24

Three Slaughter-Blocks of the Island of Britain:
Gilbert son of Cadgyffro,
and Morfran son of Tegid,
and Gwgawn Red-Sword.

TRIAD 25

Three Battle-Leaders of the Island of Britain:
Selyf son of Cynan Garrwyn,
and Urien son of Cynfarch,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.
(This is why they were called AERUEDOGEON: because they avenged their wrongs from their graves.)

TRIAD 26

Drystan son of Tallwch, who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchiawn, while the swineherd went to ask Essyllt to come to a meeting with him. And Arthur was seeking (to obtain) one pig from among them, either by deceit or by force, but he did not get it;
And Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, who guarded the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn;
And Coll son of Collfrewy, who guarded Henwen, the sow of Dallwyr Dallben, who went (when) about to bring forth (?), to Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall, (and there she went into the sea). And at Aber Tarogi in Gwent Is Coed she came to land. And Coll son of Collfrewy with his hand on her bristles wherever she went, whether by sea or by land. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee; and therefore that place is the best for wheat and bees. And from there she went to Llonion in Pembroke, and there she brought forth a grain of barley and a bee. From thence she made for the Hill of Cyferthwch in Eryri; there she brought forth a wolf-cub and a young eagle. And Coll son of Collfrewy gave the eagle to Bre(R)nnach the Irishman of the North, and the wolf he gave to Me(n)waedd son of ... of Arllechwedd; and these were (the Wolf of) Me(n)waedd and the Eagle of Brennach. And from thence she went to the Black Stone in Llanfair in Arfon, and there she brought forth a kitten; and Coll son of Collfrewy threw that kitten into the Menai. And she was afterwards Palug's Cat.

TRIAD 26 W

Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain:
Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, tending the swine of Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. These swine were the seven animals which Pwyll Lord of Annwfn brought, and gave them to Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. And the place where he used to keep them was in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn. And this is why he was called a Powerful Swineherd: because no one was able either to deceive or to force him;
And the second, Drystan son of Tallwch, tending the swine of March son of Meirchyawn, while the swineherd went with a message to Essyllt. Arthur and March and Cai and Bedwyr were (there) all four, but they did not succeed in getting so much as one pigling - neither by force, nor by deception, nor by stealth;
And the third, Coll son of C(o)llfrewy, tending the swine of Dallwyr Dallben in Glyn Dallwyr in Cornwall. And one of the swine was pregnant, Henwen was her name. And it was prophecied that the Island of Britain would be the worse for the womb-burden. Then Arthur assembled the army of the Island of Britain, and set out to seek to destroy her. And then she set off, about to bring forth (?), and at Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall she entered the sea, and the Powerful Swineherd after her. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee. And therefore from that day to this the Wheat Field in Gwent is the best place for wheat and for bees. And at Llonion in Pembroke she brought forth a grain of barley and a grain of wheat. Therefore, the barley of Llonion is proverbial. At the Hill of Cyferthwch in Arfon she brought forth a (wolf-cub) and a young eagle. The wolf was given to (M)ergaed and the eagle to Breat, a prince of the North: and they were both the worse for them. And at Llanfair in Arfon under the Black Rock she brought forth a kitten, and the Powerful Swineherd threw it from the Rock into the sea. And the sons of Palug fostered it in Môn, to their own harm: and that was Palug's Cat, and it was one of the Three Great Oppressions of Môn, nurtured therein. The second was Daronwy, and the third was Edwin, king of Lloegr.

TRIAD 27

Three Enchanters of the Island of Britain:
Coll son of Collfrewy,
and Menw son of Teirgwaedd,
and Drych son of Kibddar.

TRIAD 28

Three Great Enchantments of the Island of Britain:
The Enchantment of Math son of Mathonwy (which he taught to Gw(y)dion son of Dôn),
and the Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon (which he taught to Menw son of Teirgwaedd),
and the Enchantment of Gwythelyn the Dwarf (WR: Rudlwm the Dwarf) (which he taught to Coll son of Collfrewy his nephew).

TRIAD 29

Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, who were with him seven years in Ireland; and in all that time they did not ask him for anything, lest they should be compelled to leave him;
And the second, the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, who went to sea for their lord;
And the third, the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of Ceid(i)aw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain.

The number of the War-Band of each of those men was twenty-one hundred men.

TRIAD 29 WR:

Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn, when they were fettered;
and the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, at the time of his complete disappearance;
and the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month after their lord was slain;
The number of each one of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.

TRIAD 30

Three Faithless War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of Goronwy the Radiant of (Penllyn), who refused to receive the poisoned spear from Lleu Skilful-Hand on behalf of their lord, at the Stone of Goronwy at the head of the Cynfal;
and the War-Band of Gwrgi and Peredur, who abandoned their lord at Caer Greu, when they had an appointment to fight the next day with Eda Great-Knee; and there they were both slain;
And the War-Band of Alan Fyrgan, who turned away from him by night, and let him go with his servants to Camlan. And there he was slain.

(W: The number of each of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.)

TRIAD 31

Three Noble(?) Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of Mynyddawg of Eiddyn,
and the Retinue of Melyn son of Cynfelyn,
and the Retinue of Dryon son of Nudd.

TRIAD 31 WR

Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of Mynyddawg at Catraeth,
and the Retinue of Dreon the Brave at the Dyke of Ar(f)dery(dd),
and the third, the Retinue of Belyn of Llyn (in) Erethlyn in Rhos.

TRIAD 32

Three Men who performed the Three Fortunate Assassinations:
Gall son of Dysgyfdawd who slew the Two Birds of Gwenddolau. And they had a yoke of gold on them. Two corpses of the Cymry they ate for their dinner, and two for their supper;
And Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfdawd, who slew Edelfled king of Lloegr;
And Diffydell son of Dysgyfdawd who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('Rough Grey'). That Gwrgi used to make a corpse of one of the Cymry every day, and two on each Saturday so as not to slay on Sunday.

TRIAD 33

Three Unfortunate Assassinations of the Island of Britain:
Heidyn son of Enygan, who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, Prince of Poets;
and Llawgad Trwm Bargod Eidyn ('Heavy Battle-Hand of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
and Llofan Llaw Ddifo ('Ll. Severing Hand') who slew Urien son of Cynfarch.

TRIAD 33 W

Three Savage Men of the Island of Britain, who performed the Three Unfortunate Assassinations:
Llofan Llaw Ddifro ('Ll. Exiled Hand') who slew Urien son of Cynfarch,
Llongad Grwm Fargod Eidyn ('Ll. the Bent of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
and Heiden son of Efengad who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, daughter of Teyrnbeirdd - the man who used to give a hundred kine every Saturday in a bath-tub to Talhaearn. And he struck her with a woodhatchet on the head.
And that was one of the Three Hatchet-Blows.
The second (was) a woodcutter of Aberffraw who struck Golydan with a hatchet, on the head. And the third, one of his own men struck upon Iago, son of Beli, with a hatchet, on the head.

TRIAD 34

Three Unfortunate Hatchet-Blows of the Island of Britain:
The Blow of Eidyn on the Head of Aneirin,
and the Blow on the Head of Golydan the Poet,
and the Blow on the Head of Iago son of Beli.

TRIAD 35

Three Levies that departed from this Island, and not one of them came back:
The first went with Elen of the Hosts and Cynan her brother,
The second went with Yrp of the Hosts, who came here to ask for assistance in the time of Cadial son of Eryn. And all he asked of each Chief Fortress was twice as many (men) as would come with him to it; and to the first Fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And it proved grievous to have given him that.) Nevertheless that was the most complete levy that ever went from this Island, and no (man) of them ever came back. The place where those men remained was on two islands close to the Greek sea: those islands are Gals and Avena.
The third levy went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwenwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaws son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And those men came from Arllechwedd. They went with Caswallawn their uncle across the sea in pursuit of the men of Caesar. The place where those men are is in Gascony. And the number that went in each of those Hosts was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts: they were so called because the gold and silver of the Island went with them. And they were picked men.

TRIAD 35 R When a Host went to Llychlyn.

An army (of assistance) went with Yrp of the Hosts to Llychlyn. And that man came here in the time of Cadyal of the Blows(?) to ask for a levy from this Island. And nobody came with him but Mathuthavar his servant. This is what he asked from the ten-and-twenty Chief Fortresses that there are in this Island: that twice as many men as went with him to each of them should come away with him (from it). And to the first Fortress there came only himself and his servant. (And that proved grievous to the men of this Island.) And they granted it to him. And that was the most complete levy that ever departed from this Island. And with those men he conquered the way he went. Those men remained in the two islands close to the Greek sea: namely, Clas and Avena.
And the second (army) went with Elen of the Hosts and Maxen Wledig to Llychlyn: and they never returned to this Island.
And the third (army) went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwennwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaw son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And (it was) from Erch and Heledd that those men came. And they went with Caswallawn their uncle in pursuit of the men of Caesar from this Island. The place where those men are is in Gascony.
The number that went with each of (those armies) was twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts of the Island of Britain.

TRIAD 36

Three oppressions that came to this Island, and not one of them went back:
One of them (was) the people of the Coraniaid, who came here in the time of Caswallawn (= Lludd?) son of Beli: and not one of them went back. And they came from Arabia.
The second Oppression: the Gwyddyl Ffichti. And not one of them went back.
The third Oppression: the Saxons, with Horsa and Hengist as their leaders.

TRIAD 37

Three Concealments and Three Disclosures of the Island of Britain:
The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was buried in the White Hill in London. And as long as the Head was there in that position, no Oppression would ever come to this Island;
The second: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed, which were buried in the Chief Ports of this Island;
The third: the Dragons which Lludd son of Beli buried in Dinas Emrys in Eryri.

TRIAD 37 R:

Three Fortunate Concealments of the Island of Britain:

The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was concealed in the White Hill in London, with its face towards France. And as long as it was in the position in which it was put there, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island;
The second Fortunate Concealment: the Dragons in Dinas Emrys, which Lludd son of Beli concealed;
And the third: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed, in the Chief Ports of this Island. And as long as they remained in that concealment, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island.

And they were the Three Unfortunate Disclosures when these were disclosed. And Gwrtheyrn the Thin disclosed the bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed for the love of a woman: that was Ronnwen the pagan woman; And it was he who disclosed the Dragons;
b And Arthur disclosed the Head of Bran the Blessed from the White Hill, because it did not seem right to him that this Island should be defended by the strength of anyone, but by his own.

(On this section, triads 38 -46, see TRIOEDD YNYS PRYDEIN introduction, pp. xcviii-cvii)

TRIAD 38 (These are the Triads of the Horses:)

Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender Grey, horse of Caswallawn son of Beli,
Pale Yellow of the Stud, horse of Lleu Skilful-Hand,
and Host-Splitter, horse of Caradawg Strong-Arm.

TRIAD 39

Three Chief Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Tall Black-Tinted, horse of Cynan Garrwyn,
and Eager Long Fore-Legs, horse of Cyhored son of Cynan,
and Red... Wolf-Tread, horse of Gilbert son of Cadgyffro.

TRIAD 40

Three Plundered Horses of the Island of Britain:
Cloven-Hoof, horse of Owain son of Urien,
and Long Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
and Bucheslom, horse of Gwgawn of the Red Sword.

TRIAD 41

Three Lovers' Horses of the Island of Britain:
Grey Fetlock, horse of Dalldaf son of Cunin Cof,
and Spotted Dun, horse of Rahawd son of Morgant,
and Pale White Lively-Back, horse of Morfran son of Tegid.

TRIAD 42

Three Lively Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Grey, horse of Alser son of Maelgwn,
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai,
and Roan Cloven-Hoof, horse of Iddon son of Ynyr Gwent.

TRIAD 43

Three Pack-Horses of the Island of Britain:
Black, horse of Brwyn son of Cunedda,
and Huge Yellow, horse of Pasgen son of Urien,
and Dun-Grey, horse of Rhydderch Hael.

TRIAD 44

Three Horses who carried the Three Horse-Burdens:
Black Moro, horse of Elidir Mwynfawr, who carried on his back seven and a half people from Penllech in the North to Penllech in Môn. These were the seven people: Elidir Mwynfawr, and Eurgain his wife, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, and Gwyn Good Companion, and Gwyn Good Distributor, and Mynach Naomon his counsellor, and Prydelaw the Cupbearer, his butler, and Silver Staff his servant, and Gelbeinevin his cook, who swam with his two hands to the horse's crupper - and that was the half-person.
Corvan, horse of the sons of Eliffer, bore the second Horse-Burden: he carried on his back Gwrgi and Peredur and Dunawd the Stout and Cynfelyn the Leprous(?), to look upon the battle-fog of (the host of) Gwenddolau (in) Ar(f)derydd. (And no one overtook him but Dinogad son of Cynan Garwyn, (riding) upon Swift Roan, and he won censure (?) and dishonour from then till this day.)
Heith, horse of the sons of Gwerthmwl Wledig, bore the third Horse-Burden: he carried Gweir and Gleis and Archanad up the hill of Maelawr in Ceredigion to avenge their father.

TRIAD 45

Three Prominent Oxen of the Island of Britain:
Yellow Pale-White,
and Chestnut, Ox of Gwylwylyd,
and the Speckled Ox.

TRIAD 46

Three Prominent Cows of the Island of Britain:
Speckled, cow of Maelgwn Gwynedd,
and Grey-Skin, cow of the sons of Eliffer of the Great Warband,
and Cornillo, cow of Llawfrodedd the Bearded.

TRIAD 46 a

Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender-Hard, horse of Gwalchmai,
and Thick-Mane, horse of Gweddw,
... horse of Drudwas son of Tryffin,
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai.

TRIAD 46 b

Three Coursing Horses of the Island of Britain:
Broad-Belly and Coal, the two horses of Collawn son of Teichi,
and Swift-Roan, horse of Dinoga(d) son of Cynan (Garwyn).

TRIAD 46 c

Three Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Gwirian Groddros, horse of Ga(rw)y the Tall,
Gwegar, horse of Elinwy,
... horse of Ellwyd,
... horse of the son of Matheu.

TRIAD 47

Three Men who received the Might of Adam:
Hercules the Strong,
and Hector the Strong,
and Samson the Strong.
They were, all three, as strong as Adam himself.

TRIAD 47 b (Pen. 216)

Here are the names of the nine bravest and most noble warriors of the whole world; of whom there are Three Pagans, Three Jews, and Three Christians:
The Three Pagans: Ector of Troy, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar.
The Three Jews: David the Prophet, Judas Maccabeus, Duke Joshua.
The Three Christians: Arthur, Charles (Charlemagne), Godfrey of Boulogne.

TRIAD 48

Three Men who received the Beauty of Adam:
Absalom son of David,
and Jason son of Aeson,
and Paris son of Priam.

They were, all three, as comely as Adam himself.

TRIAD 49

Three Men who received the Wisdom of Adam:
Cato the Old,
and Bede,
and Sibli the Wise.
They were, all three, as wise as Adam himself.

TRIAD 50

Three Women who received the Beauty of Eve in three third-shares:

Diadema (= Dido?), mistress of Aenas White-Shield,

and Elen the Magnificent, the woman on whose account was the destruction of Troy,

and Polixena, daughter of Priam the Old, king of Troy.

(Eve was as fair as all of the three.)

TRIAD 51

Three Dishonoured Men who were in the Island of Britain:
One of them: Afarwy son of Lludd son of Beli. He first summoned Julius Caesar and the men of Rome to this Island, and he caused the paymant of three thousand pounds in money as tribute from this Island every year, because of a quarrel with Caswallawn his uncle.
And the second id Gwrtheyrn the Thin, who first gave land to the Saxons in this Island, and was the first to enter into an alliance with them. He caused the death of Custennin the Younger, son of Custennin the Blessed, by his treachery, and exiled the two brothers Emrys Wledig and Uthur Penndragon from this Island to Armorica, and deceitfully took the crown and the kingdom into his own possession. And in the end Uthur and Emrys burned Gwrtheyrn in Castell Gwerthrynyawn beside the Wye, in a single conflagration to avenge their brother.
The third and worst was Medrawd, when Arthur left with him the government of the Island of Britain, at the same time when he himself went across the sea to oppose Lles, emperor of Rome, who had dispatched messengers to Arthur in Caerleon to demand (payment of) tribute to him and to the men of Rome, from this Island, in the measure that it had been paid (from the time of) Caswallawn son of Beli until the time of Custennin the Blessed, Arthur's grandfather. This is the answer that Arthur gave to the emperor's messengers: that the men of Rome had no greater claim to tribute from the men of this Island, than the men of the Island of Britain had from them. For Bran son of Dyfnwal and Custennin son of Elen had been emperors in Rome, and they were two men of this Island. And they Arthur mustered the most select warriors of his kingdom (and led them) across the sea against the emperor. And they met beyond the mountain of Mynneu (= the Alps), and an untold number was slain on each side that day. And in the end Arthur encountered the emperor, and Arthur slew him. And Arthur's best men were slain there. When Medrawd heard that Arthur's host was dispersed, he turned against Arthur, and the Saxons and the Picts and the Scots united with him to hold this Island against Arthur. And when Arthur heard that, he turned back with all that had survived of his army, and succeeded by violence in landing on this Island in opposition to Medrawd. And then there took place the Battle of Camlan between Arthur and Medrawd, and was himself wounded to death. And from that (wound) he died, and was buried in a hall on the Island of Afallach.

TRIAD 52

Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain:
Llyr Half-Speech, who was imprisoned by Euroswydd,
and the second, Mabon son of Modron,
and third, Gwair son of Geirioedd.
And one (Prisoner), who was more exalted than the three of them, was three nights in prison in Caer Oeth and Anoeth, and three nights imprisoned by Gwen Pendragon, and three nights in an enchanted prison under the Stone of Echymeint. This Exalted Prisoner was Arthur. And it was the same lad who released him from each of these three prisons- Goreu, son of Custennin, his cousin.

TRIAD 53

Three Harmful Blows of the Island of Britain:
The first of them Matholwch the Irishman struck upon Branwen daughter of Llyr;
The second Gwenhwyfach struck upon Gwenhwyfar: and for that cause there took place afterwards the Action of the Battle of Camlan;
And the third Golydan the Poet struck upon Cadwaladr the Blessed.

TRIAD 54

Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain:

The first of them (occurred) when Medrawd came to Arthur's Court at Celliwig in Cornwall; he left neither food nor drink in the court that he did not consume. And he dragged Gwenhwyfar from her royal chair, and then he struck a blow upon her;

The second Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Arthur came to Medrawd's court. He left neither food nor drink in the court;

(And the third Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Aeddan the Wily came to the court of Rhydderch the Generous at Alclud (= Dumbarton); he left neither food nor drink nor beast alive.)

TRIAD 55

Three Quests that were obtained from Powys:
The first of them is the fetching of Myngan from Meigen to Llansilin, by nine the next morning, to receive privileges from Cadwallawn the Blessed, after the slaying of Ieuaf and Griffri;
The second is the fetching of Griffri to Bryn Griffri before the following morning, to attack Edwin;
The third is the fetching of Hywel son of Ieuaf to Ceredigiawn from the Rock of Gwynedd to fight with (= on the side of?) Ieuaf and Iago in that battle.

TRIAD 56

Arthur's Three Great Queens:
Gwennhwyfar daughter of (Cywryd) Gwent,
and Gwenhwyfar daughter of (Gwythyr) son of Greidiawl,
>and Gwenhwyfar daughter of (G)ogfran the Giant.

TRIAD 57

And the Three Mistresses were these:
Indeg daughter of Garwy the Tall,
and Garwen ('Fair Leg') daughter of Henin the Old,
and Gwyl ('Modest') daughter of Gendawd ('Big Chin'?).

TRIAD 58

Three Amazons of the Island of Britain:
The first of them, Llewei daughter of Seitwed,
and Rore(i) daughter of Usber,
and Mederei Badellfawr ('Big Knee'?).

TRIAD 59

Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain:
To give place for their horses' fore-feet on the land to Julius Caesar and the men of Rome, in requital for Meinlas;
and the second: to allow Horsa and Hengist and Rhonwen into this Island;
and the third: the three-fold dividing by Arthur of his men with Medrawd at Camlan.

TRIAD 60

Three Gate-Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard:
Gwgon Red Sword,
and Madawg son of Rhun,
and Gwiawn son of Cyndrwyn.

And three others on the side of Lloegr:
Hawystyl the Arrogant,
and Gwaetcym Herwuden,
and Gwiner.

TRIAD 61

Three Golden Corpses of the Island of Britain:
Madawg son of Brwyn,
and Cengan Peilliawg,
and Rhu(f)awn the Radiant son of Gwyddno.

TRIAD 62

Three Fettered War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of Cadwallawn Long-Arm, who each one put the fetters of their horses on their (own) feet, when fighting with Serygei the Irishman at the Irishmens' Rocks in Môn;
And the second, the War-Band of Rhiwallawn son of Urien when fighting with the Saxons;
And the third, the War-Band of Belyn of Llyn when fighting with Edwin at Bryn Edwin in Rhos.

TRIAD 63

Three Bull-Spectres of the Island of Britain:
Three Spectre of Gwidawl,
and the Spectre of Llyr Marini,
and the Spectre of Gyrthmwl Wledig.

TRIAD 64

Three Wild Spectres of the Island of Britain:
The Spectre of Banawg,
and the Spectre of Ednyfedawg the Sprightly,
and the Spectre of Melen.

TRIAD 65

Three Unrestricted Guests of Arthur's Court, and Three Wanderers:
Llywarch the Old,
and Llemenig,
and Heledd.

TRIAD 66

Three Faithful (Women) of the Island of Britain:
Ardd(u)n wife of Cadgor son of Gorolwyn,
and Efeilian wife of Gwydyr the Heavy,
and Emerchred wife of Mabon son of Dewengan.

TRIAD 66 Pen. 47

Three Faithful Wives of the Island of Britain:
Treul the Blameless daughter of Llynghessawc Generous Hand,
and Gwenfedon daughter of Tud(w)al Tudglud, and Tegau Gold-Breast.
And one more faithful than the three: Hemythryd daughter of Mabon son of Dyfynwyn.

TRIAD 67

Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain:
Caswallawn son of Beli, when he went to Rome to seek Fflur;
and Manawydan son of Llyr, when the Enchantment was on Dyfed;
and Lleu Skilful-Hand, when he and Gwydion were seeking a name and arms from his mother Ar(i)anrhod.

TRIAD 68

Three Kings who were (sprung) from Villeins:
Gwriad son of Gwrian in the North,
and Cadafel son of Cynfeddw in Gwynedd,
and Hyfaidd son of Bleiddig in Deheubarth.

TRIAD 69

Three Defilements of the Severn:
Cadwallawn when he went to the Action of Digoll, and the forces of Cymry with him; and Edwin on the other side, and the forces of Lloegr with him. And then the Severn was defiled from its source to its mouth;
The second, the gift of Golydan from Einiawn son of Bedd, king of Cornwall;
And the third, Calam the horse of Iddon son of Ner from Maelgwn(?).

TRIAD 70

Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain:
Urien son of Cynfarch and Arawn son of Cynfarch and Lleu son of Cynfarch, by Nefyn daughter of Brychan Brycheiniog their mother;
The second, Owain and Morfudd daughter of Urien and Anarun archbishop of Llydaw, by Modron daughter of Afallach their mother;
The third was Gwrgi and Peredur sons of (E)liffer of the Great Warband, and Arddun their sister, and ... (by Efrddyl?), and Cornan their horse and Grey-Skin their cow.

TRIAD 70 PEN. 50.

Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain:B Urien and Efrddyl, children of Cynfarch the Old, who were carried together in the womb of Nefyn daughter of Brychan their mother;
The second, Owain son of Urien and Mor(fudd) his sister who were carried together in the womb of Modron daughter of Afallach;
The third, Gwrgi and Peredur and Ceindrech Pen Asgell ('Wing Head'), children of Eliffer and the Great Warband, who were carried together in the womb of Efrddyl daughter of Cynfarch their mother.

TRIAD 71

Three Lovers of the Island of Britain:
Cynon son of Clydno (for Morfudd daughter of Urien);
and Caswallawn son of Beli (for Fflur daughter of Ugnach(?) the Dwarf);
and Drystan (son of Tallwch, for Essyllt, the wife of his uncle March).

TRIAD 71 PEN. 267:

Three Surpassing Bonds of Enduring Love which Three Men formerly in the time of Arthur cast upon the Three Fairest, most Lovable, and most Talked-of Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that time;
that is (the bond) which Tristan son of Tallwch cast upon Essyllt daughter of (Culfanawyd) Pillar of Britain;
and (the bond) which Cynon son of Clydno Eiddyn cast upon Morfudd daughter of Urien Rheged;
and (the bond) which Caradawg Strong-Arm son of Llyr M(a)rini cast upon Tegau Gold-Breast daughter of Nudd Generous-Hand, king of the North.
And those were the Three Fairest, most Lovable, and most Talked-of Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that time.

TRIAD 72

Three Stubborn Men:
E(i)ddilig the Dwarf,
and Gwair of Great Valour,
and Drystan.

TRIAD 73

Three Peers of Arthur's Court:
R(a)hawd son of Morgant,
and Dalldaf son of Cunyn Cof,
and Drystan son of March.

TRIAD 74

Three who could not be expelled(?) from Arthur's Court:B Uchei son of Gwryon,
and Coledawg son of (Gwynn),
and (C)erenhyr son of Gereinyawn the Old.

TRIAD 75

Three Men of the Island of Britain who were most courteous to Guests and Strangers:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Cadwy son of Gereint,
and Cadrieith (Fine Speech) (son of) Saidi.

TRIAD 76

Three Violent(?) Ones of the Island of Britain:
Heledd,
and Llywarch,
and Llemenig.

TRIAD 77

Three Wanderers of Arthur's Court:
Heledd,
and LLywarch,
and Llemenig.

TRIAD 78

Three Fair Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Creirwy, daughter of Ceridwen,
and Ar(i)anrhod daughter of Don,
and Gwen daughter of Cywryd son of Crydon.

TRIAD 79

Three Lively Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Angharat Tawny Wave (?), daughter of Rhydderch Hael,
and Afan, daughter of Maig Thick-Hair,
and Perwyr, daughter of Rhun of Great Wealth.

TRIAD 80

Three Faithless Wives of the Island of Britain. Three daughters of Culfanawyd of Britain:b Essyllt Fair-Hair (Trystan's mistress),
and Penarwan (wife of Owain son of Urien),
and Bun, wife of Fflamddwyn.

And one was more faithless than those three: Gwenhwyfar, Arthur's wife, since she shamed a better man than any (of the others).

TRIAD 81

Three Saintly Lineages of the Island of Britain:
The Lineage of Joseph of Ar(i)mathea,
and the Lineage of Cunedda Wledig,
and the Lineage of Brychan Brycheiniog.

TRIAD 81 C 18.

Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of Britain, by a Welsh mother:
The Offspring of Brychan Brycheiniog,
and the Offspring of Cunedda Wledig,
and the Offspring of Caw of Pictland.

TRIAD 82

Three Blessed Visitors of the Island of Britain:
Dewi,
and Padarn,
and Teilo.

TRIAD 83

Three Bodies which God created for Teilo:
The first is at Llandaff in Morgannwg,
the second at Llandeilo Fawr,
and the third at Penalun in Dyfed, as the History tells us.

TRIAD 84

Three Futile Battles of the Island of Britain:
One of them was the Battle of Goddeu: it was brought about by the cause of the bitch, together with the roebuck and the plover;
The second was the Action of Ar(f)derydd, which was brought by the cause of the lark's nest;
And the third was the worst: that was Camlan, which was brought about because of a quarrel between Gwenhwyfar and Gwennhwy(f)ach.
This is why those (Battles) were called Futile: because they were brought about by such a barren cause as that.

TRIAD 85

Arthur's Three Principal Courts:
Caerleon-on-Usk in Wales,
and Celliwig in Cornwall,
and Penrhyn Rhionydd in the North.

Three Principal Festivals at the Three Principal Courts:
Easter, and Christmas, and Whitsun.

TRIAD 86

Three Knights of Arthur's Court who won the Graal, and it brought them to Heaven:
Galaad son of Lawnslot of the Lake,
and Peredur son of Earl Efrawg,
and Bort son of King Bort.
And the two first were virgin of body. And the third was chaste, for only once had he committed bodily sin; and that, through temptation, at the time when he won ... daughter of King Brangor, who was Empress in Constantinople, and from whom was descended the greatest race in the world. All three were sprung of the race of Joseph of Arimathea, and of the lineage of the Prophet David, as the History of the Graal testifies.

TRIAD 87

Three Skilful Bards were at Arthur's Court:
Myrddin son of Morfryn,
Myrddin Emrys,
and Taliesin.

TRIAD 88

Three Splendid Maidens of Arthur's Court:
Dyfyr Golden-Hair,
Enid daughter of Earl (Y)niwl,
and Tegau Gold-Breast.

TRIAD 89

Three Things which conquered Lloegr:
Receiving Strangers,
Freeing Prisoners,
and the Gift of the Bald Man.

TRIAD 90

Three Perpetual Harmonies of the Island of Britain:
One was at the Island of Afallach,
and the second at Caer Garadawg,
and the third at Bangor.

In each of these three places there were 2,400 religious men; and of these 100 in turn continued each hour of the twenty-four hours of the day and night in prayer and service to God, ceaselessly and without rest for ever.

TRIAD 91

Three Fearless Men of the Island of Britain:
The first was Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
the second was Llachau son of Arthur,
and the third was (Peredur) son of Earl Efrog.

TRIAD 92

Three Elders of the World:
The Owl of Cwm Cowlwyd,
the Eagle of Gwernabwy,
and the Blackbird of Celli Gadarn.

TRIAD 93

Three Men who specified their sufficiency from Arthur as their Gift:
Culhwch son of Cilydd son of Celyddon Wledig,
and Huarwor son of Aflawn,
and Gordibla of Cornwall.

TRIAD 94

Three Immense Feasts that were in the Island of Britain:
One of them was the Feast which Caswallawn son of Beli made in London, where twenty thousand cattle were slain, and a hundred thousand sheep, and fifty thousand geese and capons, and of wild and domesticated birds more than anyone might number. (G. Owain).

Was Arthur's Feast in Caerleon-on-Usk the second, and what Feast was the third?

TRIAD 95

Three People who broke their hearts from Bewilderment:
Branwen daughter of Llyr,
and Caradog son of Bran,
and Ffaraon Dandde.

TRIAD 96

Three Wives whom Brychan Brycheiniog had. Their names were:
Eurbrawst,
and Rybrawst,
and Peresgri.

And his Offspring are one of the Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of Britain. The second is the Offspring of Cunedda Wledig, and the third is the Offspring of Caw of Pictland. # 104

Source: The Encyclopedia of the Celts by Knud Mariboe

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