TRIADS, THE WELSH
The following 96 TRIADS are quoted from THE WELSH TRIADS second edition,
edited and translated by Rachel Bromwich, where the reader will find her
appropiate notes inserted.
The abbreviations used here is:
PEN: National Library of Wales, Peniarth MS.
R: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR COCH HERGEST
is dated CIRCA 1400.
W: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR GWYN
RHYDDERCH is dated CIRCA 1325.
WR: The version of Trioedd Ynys Prydein contained in the LLYFR GWYN and the
Three Tribal Thrones of the island of Britain:
Arthur as Chief Prince in
Mynyw (= St David's), and Dewi as Chief Bishop, and Maelgwn Gwynedd as Chief
Arthur as Chief Prince in Celliwig in Cornwall, and Bishop Bytwini
as Chief Bishop, and Caradawg Strong-Arm as Chief Elder;
Arthur as Chief
Prince in Pen Rhionydd in the North, and Gerthmwl Wledig as Chief Elder, and
Cyndeyrn Garthwys as Chief Bishop.
Three Generous men of the Island of Britain:
Nudd the Generous, son of
Mordaf the Generous, son of Serwan,
Rhydderch the Generous, son
of Tudwal Tudglyd.
(And Arthur himself was more generous than the
Three Fair Princes of the Island of Britain:
>Owain son of
>Rhun son of Maelgwn,
Rhufawn the Radiant son of Dewrarth
Three Well-Endowed Men of the Island of Britain:
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Llachau son of Arthur,
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
Three Pillars of Battle of the Island of Britain:
Dunawd son of Pabo
Pillar of Britain,
and Gwallawg son of Lleenawg,
and Cynfelyn the
Three Bull-Protectors (?) of the Island of Britain:
Host-Protector, son of Cynwyd Cynwydion,
and Gwenddolau son of
and Urien son of Cynfarch.
Three Bull-Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Elinwy son of
and Cynhafal son of Argad,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.
The three of them were sons of bards.
Three Prostrate Chieftains of the Island of Britain:
Llywarch the Old
son of Elidir Llydanwyn,
and Manawydan son of Llyr Half-Speech,
Gwgon Gwron son of Peredur son of Eliffer of the Great Retinue.
is why those were called 'Prostrate Chieftains': because they would not seek a
dominion, which nobody could deny to them.)
Three Chieftains of Arthur's Court:
Gobrwy son of Echel
Cadr(i)eith ('Fine-Speech') son of Porthawr Gadw,
Fleudur Fflam ('Flame').
Three Chieftains of Deira and Bernicia:
Gall son of Disgyfdawd,
Ysgafnell son of Disgyfdawd,
and Diffydell son of Disgyfdawd.
of them were sons of bards.
Three Red-Speared Bards of the Island of Britain:
Tristfardd, bard of
and Dygynnelw, bard of Owain son of Urien,
and Afan Ferddig, bard
of Cadwallawn son of Cadfan.
Three Frivolous Bards of the Island of Britain:
Cadwallawn son of Cadfan,
and Rahawd son of Morgant.
Three Chief Officers of the Island of Britain:
Caradawg son of
and Cawrdaf son of Caradawg,
and Owain son of Maxen Wledig.
Three Seafarers of the Island of Britain:
Geraint son of Erbin,
Gwenwynwyn son of Naf,
and March son of Meirchiawn.
Three Roving Fleets of the Island of Britain:
The Fleet of Llawr son of
and the Fleet of Divwng son of Alan,
and the Fleet of Solor son
Three Powerful Shepherds of the Island of Britain:
Riueri son of
and D(u)nawd the Shepherd,
and Pryder (= Care) son of Dolor (=
Grief) of Deira and Bernicia.
Three Fettered Men of the Island of Britain:
and Rhun son of Maelgwn,>
and Rhiwallawn Broom-Hair.
this is why those men were called Fettered: because horses could not be
obtained that were suited to them, owing to their size; so they put fetters of
gold around the small of their legs, on the cruppers of their horses, behind
their backs; and two golden plates under their knees, and because of this the
knee is called 'knee-pan'.)
Three Battle-Horsemen of the Island of Britain:
and Me(n)waedd of Arllechwedd,
and Llyr of the Hosts.
TRIAD 18 WR.
Three Favourites of Arthur's Court, and Three Battle-Horsemen: they would
never endure a PENTEULU over them. And Arthur sang an ENGLYN:
These are my
and Lludd of the Breastplate,
and the Pillar of
the Cymry, Caradawg.
Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain:
son of E(n)vael Adrann,
and Gweir of Great Valour,
and Drystan son of
Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
and Rhun son of
and Morgant the Wealthy.
TRIAD 20 WR.
Three Red Ravagers of the Island of Britain:
Rhun son of Beli,
Lle(u) Skilful Hand,
and Morgan(t) the Wealthy.
But there was one who
was a Red Ravager greater than all three: Arthur was his name. For a year
neither grass nor plants used to spring up where one of the three would walk;
but where Arthur went, not for seven years.
Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain:
Drystan son of
and Hueil son of Caw,
and Cai son of Cenyr of the Fine
And one was diademed above the three of them: that was Bedwyr son of
Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain, three sons of Haearnwedd the
TRIAD 22 WR.
Three Brave Men of the Island of Britain:
They would not return from battle except on their
biers. And those were three sons of Gleissiar of the North, by Haearnwedd the
Wily their mother.
Three Arrogant Men of the Island of Britain:
Pasgen son of Urien,
and Rhun son of Einiawn.
Three Slaughter-Blocks of the Island of Britain:
Gilbert son of
and Morfran son of Tegid,
and Gwgawn Red-Sword.
Three Battle-Leaders of the Island of Britain:
Selyf son of Cynan
and Urien son of Cynfarch,
and Afaon son of Taliesin.
is why they were called AERUEDOGEON: because they avenged their wrongs from
Drystan son of Tallwch, who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchiawn,
while the swineherd went to ask Essyllt to come to a meeting with him. And
Arthur was seeking (to obtain) one pig from among them, either by deceit or by
force, but he did not get it;
And Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, who
guarded the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn;
And Coll son of
Collfrewy, who guarded Henwen, the sow of Dallwyr Dallben, who went (when)
about to bring forth (?), to Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall, (and there she went
into the sea). And at Aber Tarogi in Gwent Is Coed she came to land. And Coll
son of Collfrewy with his hand on her bristles wherever she went, whether by
sea or by land. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent she brought forth a grain of
wheat and a bee; and therefore that place is the best for wheat and bees. And
from there she went to Llonion in Pembroke, and there she brought forth a
grain of barley and a bee. From thence she made for the Hill of Cyferthwch in
Eryri; there she brought forth a wolf-cub and a young eagle. And Coll son of
Collfrewy gave the eagle to Bre(R)nnach the Irishman of the North, and the
wolf he gave to Me(n)waedd son of ... of Arllechwedd; and these were (the Wolf
of) Me(n)waedd and the Eagle of Brennach. And from thence she went to the
Black Stone in Llanfair in Arfon, and there she brought forth a kitten; and
Coll son of Collfrewy threw that kitten into the Menai. And she was afterwards
TRIAD 26 W
Three Powerful Swineherds of the Island of Britain:
Pryderi son of
Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, tending the swine of Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father.
These swine were the seven animals which Pwyll Lord of Annwfn brought, and
gave them to Penndaran Dyfed his foster-father. And the place where he used to
keep them was in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn. And this is why he was called a Powerful
Swineherd: because no one was able either to deceive or to force him;
the second, Drystan son of Tallwch, tending the swine of March son of
Meirchyawn, while the swineherd went with a message to Essyllt. Arthur and
March and Cai and Bedwyr were (there) all four, but they did not succeed in
getting so much as one pigling - neither by force, nor by deception, nor by
And the third, Coll son of C(o)llfrewy, tending the swine of
Dallwyr Dallben in Glyn Dallwyr in Cornwall. And one of the swine was
pregnant, Henwen was her name. And it was prophecied that the Island of
Britain would be the worse for the womb-burden. Then Arthur assembled the army
of the Island of Britain, and set out to seek to destroy her. And then she set
off, about to bring forth (?), and at Penrhyn Awstin in Cornwall she entered
the sea, and the Powerful Swineherd after her. And in the Wheat Field in Gwent
she brought forth a grain of wheat and a bee. And therefore from that day to
this the Wheat Field in Gwent is the best place for wheat and for bees. And at
Llonion in Pembroke she brought forth a grain of barley and a grain of wheat.
Therefore, the barley of Llonion is proverbial. At the Hill of Cyferthwch in
Arfon she brought forth a (wolf-cub) and a young eagle. The wolf was given to
(M)ergaed and the eagle to Breat, a prince of the North: and they were both
the worse for them. And at Llanfair in Arfon under the Black Rock she brought
forth a kitten, and the Powerful Swineherd threw it from the Rock into the
sea. And the sons of Palug fostered it in Môn, to their own harm: and that was
Palug's Cat, and it was one of the Three Great Oppressions of Môn, nurtured
therein. The second was Daronwy, and the third was Edwin, king of Lloegr.
Three Enchanters of the Island of Britain:
Coll son of Collfrewy,
Menw son of Teirgwaedd,
and Drych son of Kibddar.
Three Great Enchantments of the Island of Britain:
The Enchantment of
Math son of Mathonwy (which he taught to Gw(y)dion son of Dôn),
Enchantment of Uthyr Pendragon (which he taught to Menw son of
and the Enchantment of Gwythelyn the Dwarf (WR: Rudlwm the
Dwarf) (which he taught to Coll son of Collfrewy his nephew).
Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of
Cadwallawn son of Cadfan, who were with him seven years in Ireland; and in all
that time they did not ask him for anything, lest they should be compelled to
And the second, the War-Band of Gafran son of Aeddan, who went
to sea for their lord;
And the third, the War-Band of Gwenddolau son of
Ceid(i)aw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a fortnight and a month
after their lord was slain.
The number of the War-Band of each of those men was twenty-one hundred
TRIAD 29 WR:
Three Faithful War-Bands of the Island of Britain:
The War-Band of
Cadwallawn, when they were fettered;
and the War-Band of Gafran son of
Aeddan, at the time of his complete disappearance;
and the War-Band of
Gwenddolau son of Ceidiaw at Ar(f)derydd, who continued the battle for a
fortnight and a month after their lord was slain;
The number of each one of
the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.
Three Faithless War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of
Goronwy the Radiant of (Penllyn), who refused to receive the poisoned spear
from Lleu Skilful-Hand on behalf of their lord, at the Stone of Goronwy at the
head of the Cynfal;
and the War-Band of Gwrgi and Peredur, who abandoned
their lord at Caer Greu, when they had an appointment to fight the next day
with Eda Great-Knee; and there they were both slain;
And the War-Band of
Alan Fyrgan, who turned away from him by night, and let him go with his
servants to Camlan. And there he was slain.
(W: The number of each of the War-Bands was twenty-one hundred men.)
Three Noble(?) Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of
Mynyddawg of Eiddyn,
and the Retinue of Melyn son of Cynfelyn,
Retinue of Dryon son of Nudd.
TRIAD 31 WR
Three Noble Retinues of the Island of Britain:
The Retinue of Mynyddawg
and the Retinue of Dreon the Brave at the Dyke of
and the third, the Retinue of Belyn of Llyn (in) Erethlyn in
Three Men who performed the Three Fortunate Assassinations:
Gall son of
Dysgyfdawd who slew the Two Birds of Gwenddolau. And they had a yoke of gold
on them. Two corpses of the Cymry they ate for their dinner, and two for their
And Ysgafnell son of Dysgyfdawd, who slew Edelfled king of
And Diffydell son of Dysgyfdawd who slew Gwrgi Garwlwyd ('Rough
Grey'). That Gwrgi used to make a corpse of one of the Cymry every day, and
two on each Saturday so as not to slay on Sunday.
Three Unfortunate Assassinations of the Island of Britain:
Heidyn son of
Enygan, who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, Prince of Poets;
Trwm Bargod Eidyn ('Heavy Battle-Hand of the Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon
son of Taliesin,
and Llofan Llaw Ddifo ('Ll. Severing Hand') who slew Urien
son of Cynfarch.
TRIAD 33 W
Three Savage Men of the Island of Britain, who performed the Three
Llofan Llaw Ddifro ('Ll. Exiled Hand') who slew
Urien son of Cynfarch,
Llongad Grwm Fargod Eidyn ('Ll. the Bent of the
Border of Eidyn') who slew Afaon son of Taliesin,
and Heiden son of Efengad
who slew Aneirin of Flowing Verse, daughter of Teyrnbeirdd - the man who used
to give a hundred kine every Saturday in a bath-tub to Talhaearn. And he
struck her with a woodhatchet on the head.
And that was one of the Three
The second (was) a woodcutter of Aberffraw who struck
Golydan with a hatchet, on the head. And the third, one of his own men struck
upon Iago, son of Beli, with a hatchet, on the head.
Three Unfortunate Hatchet-Blows of the Island of Britain:
The Blow of
Eidyn on the Head of Aneirin,
and the Blow on the Head of Golydan the
and the Blow on the Head of Iago son of Beli.
Three Levies that departed from this Island, and not one of them came
The first went with Elen of the Hosts and Cynan her brother,
second went with Yrp of the Hosts, who came here to ask for assistance in the
time of Cadial son of Eryn. And all he asked of each Chief Fortress was twice
as many (men) as would come with him to it; and to the first Fortress there
came only himself and his servant. (And it proved grievous to have given him
that.) Nevertheless that was the most complete levy that ever went from this
Island, and no (man) of them ever came back. The place where those men
remained was on two islands close to the Greek sea: those islands are Gals and
The third levy went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwenwynwyn and
Gwanar, sons of Lliaws son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their
mother. And those men came from Arllechwedd. They went with Caswallawn their
uncle across the sea in pursuit of the men of Caesar. The place where those
men are is in Gascony. And the number that went in each of those Hosts was
twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts: they were so
called because the gold and silver of the Island went with them. And they were
TRIAD 35 R When a Host went to Llychlyn.
An army (of assistance) went with Yrp of the Hosts to Llychlyn. And that
man came here in the time of Cadyal of the Blows(?) to ask for a levy from
this Island. And nobody came with him but Mathuthavar his servant. This is
what he asked from the ten-and-twenty Chief Fortresses that there are in this
Island: that twice as many men as went with him to each of them should come
away with him (from it). And to the first Fortress there came only himself and
his servant. (And that proved grievous to the men of this Island.) And they
granted it to him. And that was the most complete levy that ever departed from
this Island. And with those men he conquered the way he went. Those men
remained in the two islands close to the Greek sea: namely, Clas and
And the second (army) went with Elen of the Hosts and Maxen Wledig
to Llychlyn: and they never returned to this Island.
And the third (army)
went with Caswallawn son of Beli, and Gwennwynwyn and Gwanar, sons of Lliaw
son of Nwyfre, and Arianrhod daughter of Beli their mother. And (it was) from
Erch and Heledd that those men came. And they went with Caswallawn their uncle
in pursuit of the men of Caesar from this Island. The place where those men
are is in Gascony.
The number that went with each of (those armies) was
twenty-one thousand men. And those were the Three Silver Hosts of the Island
Three oppressions that came to this Island, and not one of them went
One of them (was) the people of the Coraniaid, who came here in the
time of Caswallawn (= Lludd?) son of Beli: and not one of them went back. And
they came from Arabia.
The second Oppression: the Gwyddyl Ffichti. And not
one of them went back.
The third Oppression: the Saxons, with Horsa and
Hengist as their leaders.
Three Concealments and Three Disclosures of the Island of Britain:
Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was buried in the White Hill in
London. And as long as the Head was there in that position, no Oppression
would ever come to this Island;
The second: the Bones of Gwerthefyr the
Blessed, which were buried in the Chief Ports of this Island;
the Dragons which Lludd son of Beli buried in Dinas Emrys in Eryri.
TRIAD 37 R:
Three Fortunate Concealments of the Island of Britain:
The Head of Bran the Blessed, son of Llyr, which was concealed in the White
Hill in London, with its face towards France. And as long as it was in the
position in which it was put there, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to
The second Fortunate Concealment: the Dragons in Dinas Emrys,
which Lludd son of Beli concealed;
And the third: the Bones of Gwerthefyr
the Blessed, in the Chief Ports of this Island. And as long as they remained
in that concealment, no Saxon Oppression would ever come to this Island.
And they were the Three Unfortunate Disclosures when these were disclosed.
And Gwrtheyrn the Thin disclosed the bones of Gwerthefyr the Blessed for the
love of a woman: that was Ronnwen the pagan woman; And it was he who disclosed
b And Arthur disclosed the Head of Bran the Blessed from the
White Hill, because it did not seem right to him that this Island should be
defended by the strength of anyone, but by his own.
(On this section, triads 38 -46, see TRIOEDD YNYS PRYDEIN introduction, pp.
TRIAD 38 (These are the Triads of the Horses:)
Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender Grey, horse of
Caswallawn son of Beli,
Pale Yellow of the Stud, horse of Lleu
and Host-Splitter, horse of Caradawg Strong-Arm.
Three Chief Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Tall Black-Tinted, horse of
and Eager Long Fore-Legs, horse of Cyhored son of
and Red... Wolf-Tread, horse of Gilbert son of Cadgyffro.
Three Plundered Horses of the Island of Britain:
Cloven-Hoof, horse of
Owain son of Urien,
and Long Tongue, horse of Cadwallawn son of
and Bucheslom, horse of Gwgawn of the Red Sword.
Three Lovers' Horses of the Island of Britain:
Grey Fetlock, horse of
Dalldaf son of Cunin Cof,
and Spotted Dun, horse of Rahawd son of
and Pale White Lively-Back, horse of Morfran son of Tegid.
Three Lively Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Grey, horse of Alser son
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai,
and Roan Cloven-Hoof,
horse of Iddon son of Ynyr Gwent.
Three Pack-Horses of the Island of Britain:
Black, horse of Brwyn son of
and Huge Yellow, horse of Pasgen son of Urien,
horse of Rhydderch Hael.
Three Horses who carried the Three Horse-Burdens:
Black Moro, horse of
Elidir Mwynfawr, who carried on his back seven and a half people from Penllech
in the North to Penllech in Môn. These were the seven people: Elidir Mwynfawr,
and Eurgain his wife, daughter of Maelgwn Gwynedd, and Gwyn Good Companion,
and Gwyn Good Distributor, and Mynach Naomon his counsellor, and Prydelaw the
Cupbearer, his butler, and Silver Staff his servant, and Gelbeinevin his cook,
who swam with his two hands to the horse's crupper - and that was the
Corvan, horse of the sons of Eliffer, bore the second
Horse-Burden: he carried on his back Gwrgi and Peredur and Dunawd the Stout
and Cynfelyn the Leprous(?), to look upon the battle-fog of (the host of)
Gwenddolau (in) Ar(f)derydd. (And no one overtook him but Dinogad son of Cynan
Garwyn, (riding) upon Swift Roan, and he won censure (?) and dishonour from
then till this day.)
Heith, horse of the sons of Gwerthmwl Wledig, bore the
third Horse-Burden: he carried Gweir and Gleis and Archanad up the hill of
Maelawr in Ceredigion to avenge their father.
Three Prominent Oxen of the Island of Britain:
Chestnut, Ox of Gwylwylyd,
and the Speckled Ox.
Three Prominent Cows of the Island of Britain:
Speckled, cow of Maelgwn
and Grey-Skin, cow of the sons of Eliffer of the Great
and Cornillo, cow of Llawfrodedd the Bearded.
TRIAD 46 a
Three Bestowed Horses of the Island of Britain:
Slender-Hard, horse of
and Thick-Mane, horse of Gweddw,
... horse of Drudwas son
and Chestnut Long-Neck, horse of Cai.
TRIAD 46 b
Three Coursing Horses of the Island of Britain:
Broad-Belly and Coal,
the two horses of Collawn son of Teichi,
and Swift-Roan, horse of Dinoga(d)
son of Cynan (Garwyn).
TRIAD 46 c
Three Steeds of the Island of Britain:
Gwirian Groddros, horse of
Ga(rw)y the Tall,
Gwegar, horse of Elinwy,
... horse of Ellwyd,
horse of the son of Matheu.
Three Men who received the Might of Adam:
Hercules the Strong,
Hector the Strong,
and Samson the Strong.
They were, all three, as
strong as Adam himself.
TRIAD 47 b (Pen. 216)
Here are the names of the nine bravest and most noble warriors of the whole
world; of whom there are Three Pagans, Three Jews, and Three
The Three Pagans: Ector of Troy, Alexander the Great, Julius
The Three Jews: David the Prophet, Judas Maccabeus, Duke
The Three Christians: Arthur, Charles (Charlemagne), Godfrey of
Three Men who received the Beauty of Adam:
Absalom son of David,
Jason son of Aeson,
and Paris son of Priam.
They were, all three, as comely as Adam himself.
Three Men who received the Wisdom of Adam:
Cato the Old,
and Sibli the Wise.
They were, all three, as wise as Adam
Three Women who received the Beauty of Eve in three third-shares:
Diadema (= Dido?), mistress of Aenas White-Shield,
and Elen the Magnificent, the woman on whose account was the destruction of
and Polixena, daughter of Priam the Old, king of Troy.
(Eve was as fair as all of the three.)
Three Dishonoured Men who were in the Island of Britain:
One of them:
Afarwy son of Lludd son of Beli. He first summoned Julius Caesar and the men
of Rome to this Island, and he caused the paymant of three thousand pounds in
money as tribute from this Island every year, because of a quarrel with
Caswallawn his uncle.
And the second id Gwrtheyrn the Thin, who first gave
land to the Saxons in this Island, and was the first to enter into an alliance
with them. He caused the death of Custennin the Younger, son of Custennin the
Blessed, by his treachery, and exiled the two brothers Emrys Wledig and Uthur
Penndragon from this Island to Armorica, and deceitfully took the crown and
the kingdom into his own possession. And in the end Uthur and Emrys burned
Gwrtheyrn in Castell Gwerthrynyawn beside the Wye, in a single conflagration
to avenge their brother.
The third and worst was Medrawd, when Arthur left
with him the government of the Island of Britain, at the same time when he
himself went across the sea to oppose Lles, emperor of Rome, who had
dispatched messengers to Arthur in Caerleon to demand (payment of) tribute to
him and to the men of Rome, from this Island, in the measure that it had been
paid (from the time of) Caswallawn son of Beli until the time of Custennin the
Blessed, Arthur's grandfather. This is the answer that Arthur gave to the
emperor's messengers: that the men of Rome had no greater claim to tribute
from the men of this Island, than the men of the Island of Britain had from
them. For Bran son of Dyfnwal and Custennin son of Elen had been emperors in
Rome, and they were two men of this Island. And they Arthur mustered the most
select warriors of his kingdom (and led them) across the sea against the
emperor. And they met beyond the mountain of Mynneu (= the Alps), and an
untold number was slain on each side that day. And in the end Arthur
encountered the emperor, and Arthur slew him. And Arthur's best men were slain
there. When Medrawd heard that Arthur's host was dispersed, he turned against
Arthur, and the Saxons and the Picts and the Scots united with him to hold
this Island against Arthur. And when Arthur heard that, he turned back with
all that had survived of his army, and succeeded by violence in landing on
this Island in opposition to Medrawd. And then there took place the Battle of
Camlan between Arthur and Medrawd, and was himself wounded to death. And from
that (wound) he died, and was buried in a hall on the Island of Afallach.
Three Exalted Prisoners of the Island of Britain:
Llyr Half-Speech, who
was imprisoned by Euroswydd,
and the second, Mabon son of Modron,
third, Gwair son of Geirioedd.
And one (Prisoner), who was more exalted
than the three of them, was three nights in prison in Caer Oeth and Anoeth,
and three nights imprisoned by Gwen Pendragon, and three nights in an
enchanted prison under the Stone of Echymeint. This Exalted Prisoner was
Arthur. And it was the same lad who released him from each of these three
prisons- Goreu, son of Custennin, his cousin.
Three Harmful Blows of the Island of Britain:
The first of them
Matholwch the Irishman struck upon Branwen daughter of Llyr;
Gwenhwyfach struck upon Gwenhwyfar: and for that cause there took place
afterwards the Action of the Battle of Camlan;
And the third Golydan the
Poet struck upon Cadwaladr the Blessed.
Three Unrestrained Ravagings of the Island of Britain:
The first of them (occurred) when Medrawd came to Arthur's Court at
Celliwig in Cornwall; he left neither food nor drink in the court that he did
not consume. And he dragged Gwenhwyfar from her royal chair, and then he
struck a blow upon her;
The second Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Arthur came to Medrawd's
court. He left neither food nor drink in the court;
(And the third Unrestrained Ravaging (occurred) when Aeddan the Wily came
to the court of Rhydderch the Generous at Alclud (= Dumbarton); he left
neither food nor drink nor beast alive.)
Three Quests that were obtained from Powys:
The first of them is the
fetching of Myngan from Meigen to Llansilin, by nine the next morning, to
receive privileges from Cadwallawn the Blessed, after the slaying of Ieuaf and
The second is the fetching of Griffri to Bryn Griffri before the
following morning, to attack Edwin;
The third is the fetching of Hywel son
of Ieuaf to Ceredigiawn from the Rock of Gwynedd to fight with (= on the side
of?) Ieuaf and Iago in that battle.
Arthur's Three Great Queens:
Gwennhwyfar daughter of (Cywryd)
and Gwenhwyfar daughter of (Gwythyr) son of Greidiawl,
Gwenhwyfar daughter of (G)ogfran the Giant.
And the Three Mistresses were these:
Indeg daughter of Garwy the
and Garwen ('Fair Leg') daughter of Henin the Old,
('Modest') daughter of Gendawd ('Big Chin'?).
Three Amazons of the Island of Britain:
The first of them, Llewei
daughter of Seitwed,
and Rore(i) daughter of Usber,
Badellfawr ('Big Knee'?).
Three Unfortunate Counsels of the Island of Britain:
To give place for
their horses' fore-feet on the land to Julius Caesar and the men of Rome, in
requital for Meinlas;
and the second: to allow Horsa and Hengist and
Rhonwen into this Island;
and the third: the three-fold dividing by Arthur
of his men with Medrawd at Camlan.
Three Gate-Keepers at the Action of Bangor Orchard:
and Madawg son of Rhun,
and Gwiawn son of Cyndrwyn.
And three others on the side of Lloegr:
Hawystyl the Arrogant,
Three Golden Corpses of the Island of Britain:
Madawg son of
and Cengan Peilliawg,
and Rhu(f)awn the Radiant son of
Three Fettered War-Bands of the Islands of Britain:
The War-Band of
Cadwallawn Long-Arm, who each one put the fetters of their horses on their
(own) feet, when fighting with Serygei the Irishman at the Irishmens' Rocks in
And the second, the War-Band of Rhiwallawn son of Urien when fighting
with the Saxons;
And the third, the War-Band of Belyn of Llyn when fighting
with Edwin at Bryn Edwin in Rhos.
Three Bull-Spectres of the Island of Britain:
Three Spectre of
and the Spectre of Llyr Marini,
and the Spectre of Gyrthmwl
Three Wild Spectres of the Island of Britain:
The Spectre of Banawg,
and the Spectre of Ednyfedawg the Sprightly,
and the Spectre of
Three Unrestricted Guests of Arthur's Court, and Three
Llywarch the Old,
Three Faithful (Women) of the Island of Britain:
Ardd(u)n wife of Cadgor
son of Gorolwyn,
and Efeilian wife of Gwydyr the Heavy,
wife of Mabon son of Dewengan.
TRIAD 66 Pen. 47
Three Faithful Wives of the Island of Britain:
Treul the Blameless
daughter of Llynghessawc Generous Hand,
and Gwenfedon daughter of Tud(w)al
Tudglud, and Tegau Gold-Breast.
And one more faithful than the three:
Hemythryd daughter of Mabon son of Dyfynwyn.
Three Golden Shoemakers of the Island of Britain:
Caswallawn son of
Beli, when he went to Rome to seek Fflur;
and Manawydan son of Llyr, when
the Enchantment was on Dyfed;
and Lleu Skilful-Hand, when he and Gwydion
were seeking a name and arms from his mother Ar(i)anrhod.
Three Kings who were (sprung) from Villeins:
Gwriad son of Gwrian in the
and Cadafel son of Cynfeddw in Gwynedd,
and Hyfaidd son of
Bleiddig in Deheubarth.
Three Defilements of the Severn:
Cadwallawn when he went to the Action
of Digoll, and the forces of Cymry with him; and Edwin on the other side, and
the forces of Lloegr with him. And then the Severn was defiled from its source
to its mouth;
The second, the gift of Golydan from Einiawn son of Bedd,
king of Cornwall;
And the third, Calam the horse of Iddon son of Ner from
Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain:
Urien son of Cynfarch
and Arawn son of Cynfarch and Lleu son of Cynfarch, by Nefyn daughter of
Brychan Brycheiniog their mother;
The second, Owain and Morfudd daughter of
Urien and Anarun archbishop of Llydaw, by Modron daughter of Afallach their
The third was Gwrgi and Peredur sons of (E)liffer of the Great
Warband, and Arddun their sister, and ... (by Efrddyl?), and Cornan their
horse and Grey-Skin their cow.
TRIAD 70 PEN. 50.
Three Fair Womb-Burdens of the Island of Britain:B Urien and Efrddyl,
children of Cynfarch the Old, who were carried together in the womb of Nefyn
daughter of Brychan their mother;
The second, Owain son of Urien and
Mor(fudd) his sister who were carried together in the womb of Modron daughter
The third, Gwrgi and Peredur and Ceindrech Pen Asgell ('Wing
Head'), children of Eliffer and the Great Warband, who were carried together
in the womb of Efrddyl daughter of Cynfarch their mother.
Three Lovers of the Island of Britain:
Cynon son of Clydno (for Morfudd
daughter of Urien);
and Caswallawn son of Beli (for Fflur daughter of
Ugnach(?) the Dwarf);
and Drystan (son of Tallwch, for Essyllt, the wife of
his uncle March).
TRIAD 71 PEN. 267:
Three Surpassing Bonds of Enduring Love which Three Men formerly in the
time of Arthur cast upon the Three Fairest, most Lovable, and most Talked-of
Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that time;
that is (the bond)
which Tristan son of Tallwch cast upon Essyllt daughter of (Culfanawyd) Pillar
and (the bond) which Cynon son of Clydno Eiddyn cast upon
Morfudd daughter of Urien Rheged;
and (the bond) which Caradawg Strong-Arm
son of Llyr M(a)rini cast upon Tegau Gold-Breast daughter of Nudd
Generous-Hand, king of the North.
And those were the Three Fairest, most
Lovable, and most Talked-of Maidens who were in the Island of Britain at that
Three Stubborn Men:
E(i)ddilig the Dwarf,
and Gwair of Great
Three Peers of Arthur's Court:
R(a)hawd son of Morgant,
son of Cunyn Cof,
and Drystan son of March.
Three who could not be expelled(?) from Arthur's Court:B Uchei son of
and Coledawg son of (Gwynn),
and (C)erenhyr son of Gereinyawn
Three Men of the Island of Britain who were most courteous to Guests and
Gwalchmai son of Gwyar,
and Cadwy son of Gereint,
Cadrieith (Fine Speech) (son of) Saidi.
Three Violent(?) Ones of the Island of Britain:
Three Wanderers of Arthur's Court:
Three Fair Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Creirwy, daughter of
and Ar(i)anrhod daughter of Don,
and Gwen daughter of Cywryd
son of Crydon.
Three Lively Maidens of the Island of Britain:
Angharat Tawny Wave (?),
daughter of Rhydderch Hael,
and Afan, daughter of Maig Thick-Hair,
Perwyr, daughter of Rhun of Great Wealth.
Three Faithless Wives of the Island of Britain. Three daughters of
Culfanawyd of Britain:b Essyllt Fair-Hair (Trystan's mistress),
Penarwan (wife of Owain son of Urien),
and Bun, wife of Fflamddwyn.
And one was more faithless than those three: Gwenhwyfar, Arthur's wife,
since she shamed a better man than any (of the others).
Three Saintly Lineages of the Island of Britain:
The Lineage of Joseph
and the Lineage of Cunedda Wledig,
and the Lineage of
TRIAD 81 C 18.
Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of Britain, by a Welsh
The Offspring of Brychan Brycheiniog,
and the Offspring of
and the Offspring of Caw of Pictland.
Three Blessed Visitors of the Island of Britain:
Three Bodies which God created for Teilo:
The first is at Llandaff in
the second at Llandeilo Fawr,
and the third at Penalun in
Dyfed, as the History tells us.
Three Futile Battles of the Island of Britain:
One of them was the
Battle of Goddeu: it was brought about by the cause of the bitch, together
with the roebuck and the plover;
The second was the Action of Ar(f)derydd,
which was brought by the cause of the lark's nest;
And the third was the
worst: that was Camlan, which was brought about because of a quarrel between
Gwenhwyfar and Gwennhwy(f)ach.
This is why those (Battles) were called
Futile: because they were brought about by such a barren cause as that.
Arthur's Three Principal Courts:
Caerleon-on-Usk in Wales,
Celliwig in Cornwall,
and Penrhyn Rhionydd in the North.
Three Principal Festivals at the Three Principal Courts:
Christmas, and Whitsun.
Three Knights of Arthur's Court who won the Graal, and it brought them to
Galaad son of Lawnslot of the Lake,
and Peredur son of Earl
and Bort son of King Bort.
And the two first were virgin of
body. And the third was chaste, for only once had he committed bodily sin; and
that, through temptation, at the time when he won ... daughter of King
Brangor, who was Empress in Constantinople, and from whom was descended the
greatest race in the world. All three were sprung of the race of Joseph of
Arimathea, and of the lineage of the Prophet David, as the History of the
Three Skilful Bards were at Arthur's Court:
Myrddin son of Morfryn,
Three Splendid Maidens of Arthur's Court:
daughter of Earl (Y)niwl,
and Tegau Gold-Breast.
Three Things which conquered Lloegr:
and the Gift of the Bald Man.
Three Perpetual Harmonies of the Island of Britain:
One was at the
Island of Afallach,
and the second at Caer Garadawg,
and the third at
In each of these three places there were 2,400 religious men; and of these
100 in turn continued each hour of the twenty-four hours of the day and night
in prayer and service to God, ceaselessly and without rest for ever.
Three Fearless Men of the Island of Britain:
The first was Gwalchmai son
the second was Llachau son of Arthur,
and the third was
(Peredur) son of Earl Efrog.
Three Elders of the World:
The Owl of Cwm Cowlwyd,
the Eagle of
and the Blackbird of Celli Gadarn.
Three Men who specified their sufficiency from Arthur as their
Culhwch son of Cilydd son of Celyddon Wledig,
and Huarwor son of
and Gordibla of Cornwall.
Three Immense Feasts that were in the Island of Britain:
One of them was
the Feast which Caswallawn son of Beli made in London, where twenty thousand
cattle were slain, and a hundred thousand sheep, and fifty thousand geese and
capons, and of wild and domesticated birds more than anyone might number.
Was Arthur's Feast in Caerleon-on-Usk the second, and what Feast was the
Three People who broke their hearts from Bewilderment:
and Caradog son of Bran,
and Ffaraon Dandde.
Three Wives whom Brychan Brycheiniog had. Their names
And his Offspring are one of the Three Kindreds of Saints of the Island of
Britain. The second is the Offspring of Cunedda Wledig, and the third is the
Offspring of Caw of Pictland. # 104